(Work in progress)
Law is made also of language, and all natural languages change. It has been about 230 years, since the Constitution was written.
Today, most people interpret “chusing” as “choosing”, “controul” as “control”, and speakers of American English would think “honor” and “behavior”, rather than “honour” and “behaviour”. Prints of the Constitution also vary in their uses of big letters, or punctuation.
It does not mean the people or prints change the content. Our text as well, does not re-invent the Constitution. It combines the parchment and John Carter print, and brings the form to the standard of today, yet takes all the language uses from the Constitution itself.
Part 3 of our grammar course invites work on the grammatical article, definite and indefinite.
FEEL WELCOME TO GRAMMAR WEB LOG NOTES
John Carter print layout of 1787, Constitution content verified with the parchment original and updated to the standard American English of today; font Adobe Caslon Pro 14pt, character spacing +0.7pt on average, kerning 1pt and above, indentation 8pt LEX (Latin for law, see Perseus); line height 1.5; poster size 1687×3462 pixels; match with a Polish translation poster.
80% zoom for proper viewing (Ctrl and minus key twice):
MODERN AMERICAN ENGLISH, HTML US CONSTITUTION PAGE 1
MODERN AMERICAN ENGLISH, HTML US CONSTITUTION PAGE 2
POSTER REPLICAS OF JOHN CARTER PRINT, 1787
JPEG, CLICK TO ENLARGE
Poster replicas of the United States Constitution print by John Carter, exclusive of characters ſ and ∫ (s); the print was used in the ratification process; font Adobe Caslon Pro 14pt, character spacing +0.7pt on average, kerning 14pt and above, indentation 8pt LEX (Latin for law, see Perseus); line height 1; poster size 1687×2795 pixels; content width-to-height ratio approx. 65%, as in the original layout, available from the Library of Congress.
Source HTML, 80% zoom for browser proper viewing
(Ctrl and minus key twice)
HTML SOURCE, CARTER REPLICA POSTER, PAGE 1
HTML SOURCE, CARTER REPLICA POSTER, PAGE 2
Saved from browser window, the file can be opened in Microsoft Word and edited. Footer information presents use and distribution rights sufficiently. Footer space allows to describe editor contributions, as the license requires.
TYPESCRIPT POSTERS OF THE PARCHMENT ORIGINAL
PNG, CLICK TO ENLARGE
(WORK IN PROGRESS)
Typescript of the US Constitution parchment, pages 1-4; fonts: Great Vibes Open Type; font size19pt on average; font spacing 1.5pt on average; kerning 1pt and above; indentation LEX (Latin for law); poster size: approx. 1687×2018 pixels.
National Archives parchment original:
Saved from browser window, the HTML source allows adjustments, as on fonts or colors, in Microsoft Word; 80% zoom for proper viewing (Ctrl and minus key twice).
PARCHMENT HTML PAGE 1 US CONSTITUTION POSTER
PARCHMENT HTML PAGE 2 US CONSTITUTION POSTER
PARCHMENT HTML PAGE 3 US CONSTITUTION POSTER
PARCHMENT HTML PAGE 4 US CONSTITUTION POSTER
Footer information presents use and distribution rights sufficiently. Footer space allows to describe editor contributions, as the license requires.
>We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common Defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
JPEG, CLICK TO ENLARGE
Owing to the new policy by the Polish Language Council, to impose the verbal form “wziąć” for the verb to take, I do not provide the HTML source for the posters. I do not want my works used in a process that compares to trying to have either proved or proven for the only form allowed, where a speculative Proto-Slavic theory is offered for the rationale. As the practice is forced also in schools, I believe it would be sued under the first amendment in the USA.